US – Iran Proxy War in Middle East Under Trump Administration

  • Hino Samuel Jose Department of International Relations, Universitas Pembangunan Nasional Veteran Jakarta
  • Laode Muhamad Fathun Department of International Relations, Universitas Pembangunan Nasional Veteran Jakarta
Keywords: Conflict, Iran, Proxy War, Regional Security

Abstract

The heated bilateral relation between Iran and the United States has brought the middle east into another level of problem. The divided geopolitical and regional interest of both countries has led to several and many multidimensional issues, ranging from political, security, and even to economic ones. This article discussed the Iran – US tension on their proxy conflict in the Middle East. This article employs the Regional Security Complex Theory to construct the events related to both states’ proxy conflicts. The polarized region for sure has drawn another line that seems to be more complexed for both countries to achieve mutual understanding and continued peacebuilding. The US withdrawal from JCPOA, killing of Soleimani, and Saudi Arabia – Iran Yemen proxy war exacerbated the status quo. This article perceived that the intertwined issues show how the traditional thought of security should be redefined as both countries try to gain bargaining power. Especially with Iran that was hindered very much by sanctions and embargo placed by the US. This article discusses many important issues on Iran, US, and Saudi Arabia involvement and their correlated dynamics within the UN. This article analyzed Trump’s leadership style in the Middle East and its implication from the proxy war to the Middle East security architecture.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Hino Samuel Jose, Department of International Relations, Universitas Pembangunan Nasional Veteran Jakarta

is a penultimate year undergraduate of International Relations, Faculty of Social and Political Science, Universitas Pembangunan Nasional Veteran Jakarta. He is minoring in International Security and Global Development studies

Laode Muhamad Fathun, Department of International Relations, Universitas Pembangunan Nasional Veteran Jakarta

is currently a lecturer at the Department of International Relations, Faculty of Social and Political Science, Universitas Pembangunan Nasional Veteran Jakarta. He earned his master's degree in International Relations from Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta.

References

Acharya, A. (2007). The Emerging Regional Architecture of World Politics. World Politics, 59(4), 629–652. https://doi.org/10.1353/wp.2008.0000

Ahmed, N. (2019). Yemeni Civil War: Causes, Consequences And Prospects. JDP (Jurnal Dinamika Pemerintahan), 2(2), 82–91. https://doi.org/10.36341/jdp.v2i2.943

Amnesty International. (2019). Review of human rights in the Middle East and North Africa. Retrieved July 8, 2021, from https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/research/2019/02/human-rights-in-the-middle-east-and-north-africa-2018/

Asadi, T. (2015). On the Effectiveness of UN Security Council Sanctions: HSE Approach to the Case of Iran. Actual Problems of Economics: Scientific Economic Journal, 11(173), 21–31.

Baron, A., & Al-Hamdani, R. (2019, December 10). The “Proxy War” Prism on Yemen. New America. https://www.newamerica.org/international-security/reports/the-proxy-war-prism-on-yemen/

Bassist, R. (2021, March 29). Chances for Israeli alliance with Saudis against Iran fading. Al-Monitor: The Pulse of the Middle East. https://www.al-monitor.com/originals/2021/03/chances-israeli-alliance-saudis-against-iran-fading

Basundoro, A. F. (2020). Perang Proksi Kontemporer Arab Saudi-Iran Sebagai Bentuk Turbulensi Timur Tengah: Sebuah Analisis Geopolitik. Jurnal Penelitian Politik, 17(1), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.14203/jpp.v17i1.847

Bayoumy, Y. B. L., & Love, B. (2018, May 10). Europeans work to save Iran deal, and business, after Trump pulls out. U.S. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-iran-nuclear/europeans-work-to-save-iran-deal-and-business-after-trump-pulls-out-idUSKBN1I90D6

BBC News. (2018, May 9). Iran nuclear deal: Trump pulls US out in break with Europe allies. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-44045957

Beck, M. (2019). US Middle East Policy Shift: Trump’s Administration Divergency. RUDN Journal of Public Administration, 6(4), 296–311. https://doi.org/10.22363/2312-8313-2019-6-4-296-311

Berti, B., & Guzansky, Y. (2014). Saudi Arabia’s Foreign Policy on Iran and the Proxy War in Syria: Toward a New Chapter? Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs, 8(3), 25–34. https://doi.org/10.1080/23739770.2014.11446600

Brzezinski, Z. (2016, February 10). From Hope to Audacity Appraising Obama’s Foreign Policy. Foreign Affairs. https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/2009-12-11/hope-audacity

Buzan, B., & Waever, O. (2003). Regions and Powers: The Structure of International Society. Cambridge: The Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge.

Dadandish, P., & Kouzehgar, K. J. (2010). A Critical Study of Regional Security Complex Theory by Using the Security Environment of South Caucasus. Rahbord, 19(56), 73-107. https://www.sid.ir/en/Journal/ViewPaper.aspx?ID=188895

Dai, H. (2018, August 31). Middle Eastern Interventions in Africa: Tehran’s Extensive Soft Power. Middle East Forum. https://www.meforum.org/7254/middle-eastern-interventions-in-africa-tehran

Dunn, D. H. (2007). ‘Real men want to go to Tehran’: Bush, pre-emption and the Iranian nuclear challenge. International Affairs, 83(1), 19–38. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2346.2007.00601.x

Ekşi, M. (2017). Regional Hegemony Quests in the Middle East from the Balance of Power System to the Balance of Proxy Wars: Turkey as Balancing Power for the Iran - Saudi Rivalry. Gazi Akademik Bakış, 11(21), 133–156. https://doi.org/10.19060/gav.379597

El-Katiri, M. (2014). United States-Gulf Cooperation Council Security Cooperation in A Multipolar World. Carlisle: US Army War College Press. http://www.jstor.org/stable/resrep11893

el Khalfi, M. A. (2020). AGREEMENT ON THE JOINT COMPREHENSIVE PLAN OF ACTION (JCPOA) BETWEEN IRAN AND THE UNITED STATES. Jurnal Pembaharuan Hukum, 7(2), 183. https://doi.org/10.26532/jph.v7i2.11296

Grare, F. (2007). The Evolution of Sectarian Conflicts in Pakistan and the Ever-Changing Face of Islamic Violence. South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies, 30(1), 127–143. https://doi.org/10.1080/00856400701264068

Hussain, N. (2015). US-Iran Relations: Issues, Challenges and Prospects. Policy Perspectives, 12(2), 29–47. https://doi.org/10.13169/polipers.12.2.0029

Kamrullah, M. R. N. (2017). Peran Jabhat Al-Nusra dalam Memberikan Tantangan terhadap Kebijakan Amerika Serikat Mendukung Kelompok Oposisi pada Konflik Bersenjata di Suriah. Global: Jurnal Politik Internasional, 19(2), 77. https://doi.org/10.7454/global.v19i2.287

Katzman, K., Mcinnis, K., & Thomas, C. (2020, May 8). U.S.-Iran Conflict and Implications for U.S. Policy. CRS Reports. https://www.everycrsreport.com/reports/R45795.html

Lee, L. (2020). The Yemen crisis and civil society: surviving the despite odds. Humanitarian Exchange, https://odihpn.org/magazine/yemen-crisis-civil-society/

Marsheimer, J. (2001). The Tragedy of Great Power Politics. New York: W. W. Norton.

Mirhosseini, S. M. (2014). Evolution of Dual Containment Policy (the Policy of Clinton’s Administration - Clinton’s Doctrine) in the Persian Gulf. Sociology and Anthropology, 2(3), 106–112. https://doi.org/10.13189/sa.2014.020305

Moin, B. (1999). Life of the Ayatollah. New York: Thomas Dunne Books.

Morgan, C. (2015). US - Iran Relations: A History of Covert Action and a Promising Future. The Cohen Journal, 2(1). Diambil kembali from https://digitalcommons.library.umaine.edu/tcj/vol2/iss1/1

Mumford, A. (2013). Proxy Warfare: War and Conflict in the Modern World. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Naghizadeh, M. (2019). Rivalry Through Proxies: How Iran and Saudi Arabia Compete For Regional Influence. St Antony's International Review, 137-153.

Nakhavali, M. (2013). Diplomatic, Consular and Political Relations Between Iran and United States. European Scientific Journal, 9(14), 49-63. https://eujournal.org/index.php/esj/article/view/1069/1103

Nuruzzaman, M. (2012). Conflicts between Iran and the Gulf Arab States: An Economic Evaluation. Strategic Analysis, 36(4), 542–553. https://doi.org/10.1080/09700161.2012.689512

Nye, J. (2010, June 14). East Asian Security: The Case for Deep Engagement. Foreign Affairs. https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/asia/1995-07-01/east-asian-security-case-deep-engagement

Qurtuby, S. A., & Aldamer, S. (2020). Terrorism and Counterterrorism in Saudi Arabia. Contemporary Review of the Middle East, 8(1), 56–76. https://doi.org/10.1177/2347798920976286

Rahman, M. (2020). CURRENT PHENOMENON TENSION OF THE UNITED STATES AND IRAN IN THE MIDDLE EAST. Journal of Islamic World and Politics, 4(1), 31–47. https://doi.org/10.18196/jiwp.4143

Ramsey, M. D. (2016). Evading the Treaty Power?: The Constitutionality of Nonbinding Agreements. FIU Law Review, 11(2). https://doi.org/10.25148/lawrev.11.2.9

Rauta, V. (2018). A structural-relational analysis of party dynamics in proxy wars. International Relations, 32(4), 449–467. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047117818802436

Roberts, D., & Borger, J. (2017, December 1). Obama holds historic phone call with Rouhani and hints at end to sanctions. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/sep/27/obama-phone-call-iranian-president-rouhani

Sauer, T. (2007). Coercive Diplomacy by the EU: The Case of Iran. The Hague: Netherlands Institute of International Relations 'Clingendael'.

Scott, C. V. (2000). Bound for Glory: The Hostage Crisis as Captivity Narrative in Iran. International Studies Quarterly, 44(1), 177–188. https://doi.org/10.1111/0020-8833.00153

Seymour, L. J. M. (2013). Let’s Bullshit! Arguing, Bargaining and Dissembling Over Darfur. SSRN Electronic Journal, 20(3). https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2386522

Smith, J. B. (2016, January 5). Former U.S. Ambassador: What the Saudi Arabia-Iran Conflict Means for Stability. Time. https://time.com/4167026/saudi-arabia-iran-conflict-and-stability/

Steenkamp, C. (2017). The Crime-Conflict Nexus and the Civil War in Syria. Stability: International Journal of Security and Development, 6(1). https://doi.org/10.5334/sta.522

Totten, M. J. (2016). The New Arab–Israeli Alliance. World Affairs, 179(2), 28–36. https://doi.org/10.1177/0043820016673779

Trevithick, J. (2019, May 14). U.S. Government Claims Iran Is Behind Attacks On Oil Tankers, But Has Yet To Show Evidence. The Drive. https://www.thedrive.com/the-war-zone/27992/u-s-government-claims-iran-is-behind-attacks-on-oil-tankers-but-has-yet-to-show-evidence

Valerio Jovan, C. (2021). THE UNITED STATES UNILATERAL WITHDRAWAL FROM THE RESTRICTIONS OF IRAN’S NUCLEAR PROGRAM IN JCPOA 2015 UNDER INTERNATIONAL LAW. Padjadjaran Journal of International Law, 4(2), 247–264. https://doi.org/10.23920/pjil.v4i2.414

Wahyuni, S., & Baharuddin, S. S. (2017). The Impact of GCC Boycott on Qatar Foreign Policy. Jurnal Transformasi Global, 4(2), 80-89. https://transformasiglobal.ub.ac.id/index.php/trans/article/view/71

Walt, S. M. (1987). Origins of Alliance. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Wehrey, F. (2011). Uprisings Jolt the Saudi-Iranian Rivalry. Current History, 110(740), 352–357. https://doi.org/10.1525/curh.2011.110.740.352

Wintour, P. (2017, November 28). Qatar diplomatic crisis – what you need to know. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/jun/05/qatar-diplomatic-crisis-what-you-need-to-know

Yee, V. (2019, May 15). Yemen’s Houthi Rebels Attack Saudi Oil Facilities, Escalating Tensions in Gulf. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/05/14/world/middleeast/saudi-oil-attack.html

Yeganeh, H. (2011). The “Great Satan” talks with the “Evil.” International Journal of Conflict Management, 22(3), 219–238. https://doi.org/10.1108/10444061111152946

Published
2021-07-28
How to Cite
Jose, H., & Fathun, L. (2021). US – Iran Proxy War in Middle East Under Trump Administration. Journal of Political Issues, 3(1), 36-48. https://doi.org/10.33019/jpi.v3i1.45